Document examiners use a wide range of magnification equipment. Questioned document examination can be a extremely useful factor in solving a crime. These techniques do not always lead to answers, but they are the best initial approach because they are non-destructive methods. A forensic document examiner relies on a range of scientific instruments and specialized forensic equipment (from basic to advanced) to aid in these examinations. Next, the doctor will insert an instrument known as a speculum into the vagina. Standards and methodologies … THE USE OF DOCUMENTS IN EXAMINATION-IN-CHIEF. ESDA. One enjoyable fringe benefit of being a document examiner is recreational use of the microscope. With high quality instrumentation comes quick and accurate results. Instruments; Instruments used in the questioned document section include: Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA), Stereo-Microscope, Spectrophotometer, and Fingerprint Live Scanner etc. 5 Cross Examination on Documents In TPC v TNT Management 56 ALR at 681 Franki J. said that: 1 Miller v Cotton (1848) 5 Ga 341 at 349 A tool for both measurement and magnification is a "reticle" which is a magnifier eyepiece containing an engraved measurement scale which allows the examiner to precisely measure what is viewed under the microscope. MAGNIFICATION - Magnifiers/Microscopes. In the example below, my signature is shown at 10X, 15X, 20X and 25X. It is also a tool in doing examinations and presenting evidence. The second important use of photography in document examination is for recording and presenting evidence. In this case, the ink or inks all appeared black and could not be separated with filtering, but the "2" could be seen under a microscope. For the first image, a photograph of the original document (the original was on file in the courthouse and could not be removed from that location) was scanned in and cropped to the area in question. Every day we read about the deployment of a new “spy” satellite that employs infrared imaging. The speculum is a stainless steel or plastic device that resembles a … The camera produces a bright flash when a picture is taken. Forensic Document Examination enlightens forensic document examiners, forensic investigators, attorneys and others using the services of forensic document examiners with the basic principles and current trends in the area. Photo equipment is likely to include a 35mm SLR camera, digital camera, copy stand, filters, extension tubes, lenses, and other items. A great microscope for document examination is a relatively low power microscope that is both reflective and stereoscopic. When magnification is higher, the field of vision is so narrow that the object viewed loses relevance. The Anatomy and Function of the Retina. Instruments Commonly Used For Examination of the Eye. This document should be read in conjunction with the calculator sectionof “The conduct of IB Diploma Programme examinations” document and other information available on the Programme Resource Centre. I utilize a variety of laboratory instruments in my work. Another plus of the stereomicroscope is the natural, comfortable feel of the instrument that results from being able to use both eyes for viewing. Instruments used specially in Ophthalmology are as follows:  __Forcetoc__ Instrument list ... Loupe used ot search for magnified examination of the anterior segment of the eye (uniocular or binocular) Jackson's cross cylinder used to check the power and axis of a cylindrical lens The Medical Center of the University of Rochester explains that a speculum, cervical brush and a glass slide are used during a pap smear along with a preserving solution. If further magnification is used, a microscope is very useful in examining printing processes, ink strokes, security features and other document features. Two documents can be viewed side-by-side and the images can be positioned so that they appear to overlay each other. A Questioned Document can be Below you see the results when two of my signatures are viewed under the comparison microscope at 15x. This report presents some of the more commonly used items and includes some photographs of what this writer uses daily. The chemical analysis for ink dating is a very specialized field. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. This basic article on the use of the microscope in questioned document work is to form a portion of the educational and training program of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners.-ErToR. The Optics, Refraction, and Instruments Examination takes one-and-a-half hours. Objective: This study updates work published in 1998, which found that of 47 rating instruments appearing on websites offering health information, 14 described how they were developed, five provided instructions for use, and none reported the interobserver reliability and construct validity of the measurements. A Questioned Document is any handwritten/typewritten document having a questionable authenticity and subjected to a forensic document examination. Section 32: Attempts To Revive Memory In Court (1) A witness must not, in the course of giving evidence, use a document to try revive his or her memory about a fact or opinion unless the court gives leave. The instruments we need to convert UV and IR wavelengths of the light spectrum into visible images for the human eye are called video spectral comparators and forensic imaging spectrometers. he is a member. by E. Lawrence Bickford, O.D. Much of the work in questioned document examination was conducted with modern scientific instruments such as the estereomicroscope, the electrostatic indentation Apparatus (ESDA), an instrument that detects latent writings, marks and impressions of fingerprints and palm prints in paper, Infrarred and Ultraviolet Video Imaging System, typewriter measure plates, photographic equipment … Forensic Document Examination or Questioned Document Examination involves the scientific examination of suspicious documents. Writing media examination – including instruments, inks and papers 4. In the second image the contrast and brightness have been adjusted to give a clearer view of the area. “Snooper” … As you write on the top page, indentations of the writing are made onto the following page(s) due to pen pressure. The last category, computer equipment is a recent and diverse category. Digital microscopes combine optics for magnification with digital capture technology to allow the user to view the magnified image on the monitor instead of or in addition to viewing it through the microscope eyepieces. Infrared imaging equipment and infrared photography have opened up a new world for the questioned document examiner, although the concept is not new. But the computer is not just a source of trouble for the document examiner, or a help in making attractive and informative exhibits. To see details more closely, there are many types of microscopes. The metal or plastic speculum is inserted into the vagina and opens the walls to make the cervix accessible to … The document can be laid upon the box and the light from behind the document makes it possible to see details not otherwise visible. The writing instrument that dominated for the longest period in history (over one-thousand years) was the quill pen . It is used to document eye diseases. The Optics, Refraction, and Instruments exam is frequently taken early in residency training. MAGNIFICATION - Magnifiers/Microscopes. This document does not provide detailed advice on instrument … In the third through sixth images the heavy inking that was used to obscure the original writing is gradually "removed" to reveal the "2". Foster and Freeman makes a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), allowing ink comparisons and many other types of document analysis. In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. UV and IR light are used to differentiate between inks and papers, and to reveal obliterated materials. For example, scanning in documents and cautious use of image processing software offers the potential to differentiate between inks and reveal obscured writing, as illustrated in series of images that follow. This document provides information to teachers in schools about: • using syllabus objectives and standards descriptors to design assessment instruments, tasks and items • developing assessment design processes . Handheld magnifiers (sold here by QDEWill) enlarge the material from 2 to 10 times (magnification powers of 2X to 10X) and may have lighting abilities as well to brighten the field of view. KDX Forensic Consulting, LLC is a Chicago based Forensic Document Examination firm with over 8 years of … If you would like more of a challange, try these: Light sources include transmitted light, long and short wave ultraviolet light, and infra-red light.
2020 instruments used in document examination